In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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An isocost line is a locus of points showing the alternative combinations of factors that can be purchased with a fixed amount of money.

See full list of related question in economics. We discuss the relation between the returns to a factor law of diminishing returns and returns to scale law of returns to scale on the assumptions that:. From the theory of production where only one or two inputs are variable, we proceed to examine cases in which all inputs are variable. Where the isoquant touches but isoquxnt not cross the lowest isocost line is the least cost position.

Isoquant indicates various combinations of two factors of production which give the same level of output per unit of time. Sign ispquant here or sign in with.

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The producer isoquan attain P level of output by the factor combination represented by point E, which is on iso-cost line K 2 L 2. If all points of tangency like LMN are joined by a line, it is known as an output- factor curve or least-outlay isoquuant or the expansion path of a firm. The isocost curves represent the locus of all combinations of the two input factors which result in the same total cost. It is elliptical which means that at some point it begins to recede from each axis.


The slope of an isoquant gives the marginal rate of technical substitution MKTS defined as the increase in the quantity of one factor that is required to replace a unit decrease in another factor, when output jsoquant held constant along any isoquant.

The isoqant physical product per rupee of one factor must be equal to tht of the other factor. When this happens the ratio of the prices of factors is the same as the ratio of their marginal products.

This will be the optimal combination for it. If, in the short run, its total output remains fixed due to capacity constraint and if it is a price-taker i. The firm would isowuant operate on the positively sloped portion of an isoquant because it could produce the same level of quantity with less capital and labour.

Laws of Returns: The Isoquant-Isocost Approach | Economics

Thus by doubling the units of labour with constant C 2the output less than doubles. Each return form has two forms of acknowledgements attached to it. When a large number of firms are concentrated at one place, skilled labour, credit and transport facilities are easily available. Only if a dollar spent on each input is equally productive is the input bundle optimal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Prices of factors remaining the iwocost, if the total outlay is raised, the isocost curve will shift upward to the right as EF parallel to CD, and if the total outlay is reduced islcost will shift downwards to the left as AB.

Suppose the isoquant is vertical as shown in Figure The long-run production function of a firm involving the usage of two factors, say, capital and labour is represented by equal-product curve or isoquant.

In case of two variable factors, labour and capital, an isoquant appears as a curve on a graph the axes of which measure quantities of the two factors. To raise output to units from units, HJ labour is employed.

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Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

The slope of iso cost line indicates the isoquaht of the factor prices. An isoquant shows the various combination of two inputs that can be used to produce a specific level of output.

We could draw as many isodost as we like. This is explained in Panel B of Figure Firstly, an indifference curve represents satisfaction which cannot be measured in physical units. A cost-minimizing input bundle is a point on the isoquant for the given y that is on the lowest possible isocost line.

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Isocost-isoquant analysis | economics |

The first step is to calculate the taxable income from each source under To explain the law, capital is taken as a fixed factor and labour as a variable factor. Iso quant is sloping downwardso when inputs are used in fixed proportion. It is the stage of diminishing marginal returns between points H and L. The minimum-cost points are A, D and E.

An iso-cost line closer to origin indicates a lower total cost outlay. If he were producing this output with the combination D, he would be employing CT less of capital and relatively TD more of labour. If the y -isoquant is smooth and convex to the origin and the cost-minimizing bundle involves a positive amount of each input, then at a cost-minimizing input bundle an isocost line is tangent to the y -isoquant.

This is known as the stage of diminishing returns. Suppose, the producer wants to produce six units of output. The increasing returns to scale are attributed to the existence of indivisibilities in machines, management, labour, finance, etc.